Jewish Central Poland, an area of approximately 100 km x 80 km, was once entirely glaciated 11000 years ago. With the retreating glaciers. The landscape eventually
Central Poland and the 17 shtetls sit exactly in the centre of Europe’s 9th largest country— surrounded by the larger metropolises of Warsaw, Lodz and Bygodocz. The area is known as the Central Lowlands—a large area which represents 90% of Poland—all under 300m elevation. To the south the land rises due to the upland Carpathian Mountain Range, rising to 2500m above sea level. The major river crossing JCP is the Vistula which flows northwest from Warsaw and bends northward abruptly at Wloclawek before ending up at Gdansk and the Baltic. Scattered tributaries flow through many of the shtetls including the Warta and Ode.